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The Alpine landscapes lie in northern Slovenia, cover two fifths of its territory, and are divided into mountain, hill, and plain landscapes.
The Alpine mountains in northwestern Slovenia are largely composed of carbonate rock, primarily limestone and dolomite. Rivers carved deep valleys that glaciers reshaped during the Ice Ages. Today's forest line runs at an altitude of around 1,600 m. Only the wider valleys are more densely populated, while extensive high mountain areas are completely uninhabited. The population here is increasing only slightly. The most imposing mountains are the Julian Alps around Mount Triglav (2,864 m), Slovenia’s highest mountain. Below it is the Triglav glacier, the southeasternmost glacier in the European Alps. On the south side, the blue-green Soča River winds through its deep valley toward the Adriatic Sea. Picturesque glacial valleys open to the north. One of them is Planica, the cradle of ski flying, one of Slovenia's most popular winter spectator sports.
To the south and east, the broad band of the Alpine hills borders the Alpine mountains. These are composed primarily of dolomite, limestone, metamorphic rocks, claystone, siltstone, and flint sandstone and conglomerate. Two thirds of the surface is covered by forest. Isolated farms small nucleate villages appear in this region. Increasing numbers of farmhouses are being converted into vacation houses owned by townspeople, some farms are engaged in farm tourism, and remote villages are in decline.
The Alpine plains were formed by rivers that deposited gravel and sand on the bottoms of basins and formed terraces. Older terraces where gravel cemented to form conglomerate have been karstified and overgrown with forest, while fertile fields cover the younger gravel terraces where mainly potatoes and corn are cultivated. Settlements are large and greatly urbanized. In the northern part of the Ljubljana Basin, Slovenia's largest basin, the Sava River and its tributaries filled the Sava Plain. Here is the Slovenia’s capital Ljubljana.